Hover Travel and Bee Fly Species Diversity

Hover Travel and Bee Fly Species Diversity

Bee Species Variety

Away from 2009 in order to 2018, 192 bee species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) was trapped in the Calanques Federal Park through one another internet and you can pan trap choices. It belonged so you can half dozen parents and 38 genera. Megachilidae was the quintessential varieties-rich family unit members, accompanied by Apidae and you will Halictidae, having 53, 49, and you may 43 variety, respectively. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 are the new richest genus, which have 33 kinds, while eight genera was basically represented from the one types (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Desk step one [on the internet merely] ). By using the jackknife 1 and you can dos indexes, the full bee types richness is actually projected are between ± nine.89 and you will ± . The observed fullness ergo represented 71.3 so you’re able to 79.6% of your projected bee richness ( Dining table dos). The newest Chao1 method estimated the seen richness are 76.8% of possible restrict richness ( Dining table dos). Many plentiful variety is Apis mellifera L. (276 anyone), accompanied by Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and you may 168 someone, respectively), and you can Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 anybody). Eventually, 50 types (26%) was in fact illustrated by just one individual (singletons).

Environmental Characteristics out of Bees

Concerning your environmental attributes away from nesting needs, i identified 59 unmarried bee species nesting over soil, ninety-five solitary bee species nesting underground and 23 cleptoparasitic variety, equal to 31.7, 47.9, and you can several.0% of one’s total bee variety richness, correspondingly. I perceived five societal types (bumble bees and you can honey bees-2.1%). In the end, the brand new nesting choice away from fourteen variety remain unfamiliar (seven.3%- Supp Dining table 1 [on the internet only] ). Regarding your flowery diet plan from bee varieties, we unearthed that 105 variety (54.7%) foraged for the many bush species (i.age., generalist varieties, polylectic) and 51 species (twenty six.5%) foraged on a single plant friends otherwise one/pair plant variety (i.age., specialist types, oligolectic). On the leftover thirty six bee kinds (18.8%), the newest flowery diet plan was not known (age.g., to own cleptoparasitic types). However, really generalist species presented a preference for one or several plant household ( Supp Dining table step 1 [online just] ). On the 49 singletons, 14 bee varieties (28%) had been experts, and you may 9 bee variety (18%) was indeed ardent login cleptoparasitic ( Supp Desk step one [on the internet merely] ).

A keen IUCN status was readily available for 178 species (excluding brand new kinds buildings and you can not known kinds). Among those, 47 types was classified since the study deficient (DD-26.4%), 124 varieties have been the very least concerned (LC-69.6%), half a dozen varieties was indeed close endangered (NT-step 3.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and you will L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), and another types are considered endangered (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Desk step 1 [online only] ). About three oligolectic types was in fact one of the seven threatened bee types. A good. ovatula and C. albomaculatus was gurus towards the Fabaceae, D. argentata is actually a professional for the Caprifoliaceae.

Regarding 2009 so you can 2018, 38 types of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) have been caught within the Calanques National Park. It belonged in order to 24 genera ( Supp Table 2 [on the internet simply] ). One particular abundant genera was Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 somebody), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (14 some one), and you may Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville within the Latreille, 1828 (thirteen some one), while 20 types (53%) was basically represented from the one personal ( Supp Desk dos [on the internet only] ). This new bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) have been illustrated from the 20 varieties, along with five singletons (25%) ( Supp Desk step 3 [on line simply] ). The fresh estimation away from full species fullness away from hover flies and you can bee flies try between 83 and 97 variety by using the jackknife step 1 and you may 2 indexes, respectively. For that reason, the brand new seen fullness represented 59.8–69.9% of the estimated hover fly and bee travel richness ( Desk 2).

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